This briefing is a contribution to reflections about the role of Europe in global marine biodiversity governance negotiations. The coming years will be a key period in defining the governance of marine biological diversity in the world. At the United Nations, discussions about the adoption of an Implementation Agreement under UNCLOS on the use and protection of marine biological resources beyond national jurisdiction have begun. Countries around the world have also begun establishing ever more and sometimes larger marine protected areas. But will this help? What do we know about the state of marine biodiversity? What does the newest science suggest?